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Αρχαιολογία 004

Αρχαιολογία 004

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Published by P.berg
Αγωνίσματα ,
Ο βυζαντινός ιππόδρομος ,
Ιδεολογικό υπόβαθρο των αγώνων
/ Events,
The Byzantine Hippodrome,
Ideology of race
Αγωνίσματα ,
Ο βυζαντινός ιππόδρομος ,
Ιδεολογικό υπόβαθρο των αγώνων
/ Events,
The Byzantine Hippodrome,
Ideology of race

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The Olympic ing in ancient older even gious eastern age, through nucleus cal their leeling traditions earlier. believes

Games Greece. going ages. are. back In the in rooted on or reliin the temtorv The dealh a to the minoan. background number popular the quite during of

of the

Olympic

Games

lie a great

and rituals,

Maditerranean the

neolithic

that are transferred 01 this re/igionl

in the greek theology

crete-mycenaean 01 vegetation-life This theology it gives

culture. and brings answers

is the cycli-

renewal leaders.

interchange-oftheworld,thesocietiesand along to man's and places and social heroes revival for comof security;

role in the universe, him under who secure the

to his destiny of gods and

the protection biological Thus.

and continuity.

the athletic

competition

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becomes,

lor the mortals.

a medium

pletefuilliliment

cipants dynamism however. Huizinga element common cules with volve

the in

chance a of noble the

to competition. asan greek that which exclusive

cannot

be regarded

characteristic in all with

civilisation. have nothing like games conrronteo

J
in HerinOn of the struc-

has proved games the

that emulation of a hero. are often Athletic according a complex

is a basic

deeds who

and Theseus beasts athfets

and monsters. who compete undergone they form all the with the have hand

to rules of sym-

and must the other bois the

a long training, relations Finally. lor the since

containing humans are

imaginary universe. element

games tureand them elements obvious athlets

a decisive approach the

function

01 community. This

through

a positive in lromall and

01 all the community role is particularly Games, where being in in

is achieved. greek peaceful

Olympic gathered originale

cilies-even competition from

a state of war-are a religious The and been greek nomy It is tennis and roman italian ideas. and games traditions.

to participate etruscan they evolution, Iheirphysiogidentity the with the The

Although their their mention retained to

have by

influenced, have

during developed also

they have

interesting played clear America. religious had the symbolized

lawnan old arisplay

in the pre-colombian In Ihis game. meaning, the universe, people. played. only to participate.

societies

of Central tocracy ground

right

the ball and members 10 play 01 but

the players respectively.

symbolized The simple were the

the sun and the stars not allowed

Athletic Greece, America
The thai which 4

Games Rome

in and

Ancient Central

the only tors. tion

community, to watch, The game

game and

as spectarepresentathe is one

was the symbolic

01 Ihe macrocosm Eliade points

it guaranteed the aim

reproduction,renewaland"perpetualreturn' establishment lead to the 01 the creation detached Olympic social 01 the Games changes city-state in As Mircea the abolition in i/lo our. through through 756 BC. coincides is gradualty with radical and the same.vIhe return anutaucn 01 the time past. a continuous lhe repetition 01

of history

Irom Ihe homeric

tempore,

schemes

01 kingdom

the act of creation

15

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Athletic

Games

in Minoan Greece

Crete

and Mycenaean

Athletic games like boxing. wreslling and bullleaping seem _10 have been indispensable from every renqous least In minoan Crete. These games arealten represented on ritual objects-Iaundin special locations that have been considered as sanctuaries like the conic. stone rhyton (c. 1500 BC_.) from Agil_l Triada. Being averycharactenstlcexampt~lt is decorated with scenes ct bosinq. wrestling and bull-leaping. in relief The most popular ~nd hazardous ~~me .w~s thebull-Ieaping.whlchinaltpr~bablhtyoflglnales from the bull catching. venous phases of the game are represented on the two lamous golden cups from Vapheio. Laconia. exposed at the National Museum. The numerous representations of bull-leaping in minoan w~lIpaintings and minor arts give us a clear picture of the actuat game: the athlets participating (men and women) seized firmly the .running bull by its h?rnS and while the animal was \rying to get rId of the human burden by shaking backwards his head. they were launched in the air risking a jump over and across the back of the bull. The best representation of bull-leaping is the so-caned 'Tor~ador Fresco" (c. 1500 BC.) in Knossos. It IS not certain. however, whether this game has any relation with the modern spanish bullfights Bull-leapjnq. wrestling and boxing passed from the minoan over to the mycenaean world. Mycenaeans introduced. most probably. the race and cha~iot races to ath.lelfc games and were the first who organized athletic competitions on funerary occasions. events that are represented on funerary mycenaean monuments and are so brilliantly described in the homeric poems 21

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The boxer with the lily necklace from Knossos
The king" three parts reconstitution from krossos of minoan the torso, of the so-called "Priestpopuwith plaster Ihe other When in is one oflhe art. She of more is made

lar figures (the crown, A. Evans sonages er". observation powerful appeared lion torso many the crown perhaps athletes surely These

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the model of the "boxingchildren"fresat Thera. 27

co in Akrotiri

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IEPOC; nepteoxoc). TO ¢JlAlnnElo (TO 338 rt.X. 0 etxcmoc S' a MaKE05wv EXTlOE TO KUKAlKO mho oiKoi501J1llJa I-lETD Trl 1l6Xll Tflc; XmpWVEiOc.;), TO npUTOVErO, l>IOIKI1TlKOKtVTPO TOO 'tecoo nee neptAOIJ8aVE rnv 'Errrkr, OTrlV ortotc tKOIYE OUVEXWe;-l teon t <pMya. 'Avcuecc OTa tsoceoc nOV£AAt']VlO teoc Tfic; coxcrcc 'E,v,,05ac.; ~EXWp[~ouv o.0qlOAWc; TWV 6.EA<pWVset rnc 'OAulJniac.;, yupw cno TO. ortotc cucrtercevovrcr 01 t']61Kte; Kai nveuurrnKtc.; 6~iEe; Tfie; KAaOlKfic; 'E,v,,0050c.;, nou tKqlpO~OVTal uecc cno TO nveuuc nic.; eOVEvoOC;QIJI,v"Oc.;. TOUc.;6.eAr qloOc.;«uorcoxet TO Tlpello rrvecuc TOO 'AnOAAwva, eeoc me 1J0UGtKfJe;«cr Tfle; rtotncnc. rtou eruxouoer Kat npooTaTEllEI Ilt TOlle; rtomrucouc Koi 1l0UOlKOUC;OVWVEC;mv nveuucrucn 5TlIJI0uPVI0. 'AvTISeTo, O'TrlV 'Oxuurttc 6 OPXI1YOc.; TWV Sewv 6.iae; YUllvcr~el Kat crOKE! TO coucrc. rtpne'roq ..!i~OVTOc.; l rc ETaI Yla TOV nOAEIlO «cr TO cncoctT'1TO Tt']V tnOXtl EKElv'1 Via Tl'[V tnt6iwOT] ortxc, OqlOO esetvoc KpaTO TO KpOTal6TEpo an' OAa, TOV KEpOUVO!

A.A.-K.E.

Four Panhellenic
ThePanhelienic Greeks in origin, and dead Apollo tradition were Festivals the opportunity taking

Sanctuaries
offeredtneancient to express place their unity feasts major of of of to These in four an the the

and language.

games or

sanctuaries, hero, who

commemorating Thus. earth in Delphi slew the dragon deily ..was Opbeltis

illustrious myth

Pytho ..symbol nucleus honoured

a prehistoric the festivities, the dead another honoured the athletic of Pelops Periods the Greeks Delphi, noble Olympia the potent were minds weapons, ing. The symbolism served character Games mentai to virtue later

in Nemea Hercules, Melikertis,

the games In Isthmia while

royal-child version, was over of peace to these in games

or, according in Olympia

the hero the victory

commemorated were proclaimed the

the old king facilitate four

Oenomaos. throughout gathering character: the 01 arts, that peaceful, while in and the of Zeus. for of Each in

country

sanctuaries.

panhellenicfeast spirit

had its distinct prevailed patron the gods. and of vital

for example, of Apollo, under of father a mean it was

auspices exercised importance

bodies

trained

for rulideal funeral Olympic and thai led

and ethics as a substitute games:

of the Greek for the the thus,

of the became etten

the adoration

of physical

and Of noble

competition

and perfection

"

IIANA8HNAIKOI AM<I>OPEI~

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'ApxaloMyoc:

2.nava8Ilya'Ko<:al'~optO<:TOiiOp)(OVTOKaHIi,"'16.,(360IS9n.X.)

32

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01 rtcxrorecor vvccrot al-lq:lopeie; ronoaerocvrcr ncvcanvcjxot xtvo rtplv TO. 33

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Amphoras

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Panamenaic Amphoras. the attic vases offeredasaprizetolhewinnersoftheathlelic competitions held during the Great Panethenata. form a distinct group. which for almost len centuries (6th cent. BC 4th cent. AD) has been enriched with hundrends of sampies. They are decorated with black painted figures on a light background while the details are rendered with incision and red and white 'paint. This lechnique remains in use unlil the mid-Sth century, when its rival. the red-ligured stye, is definilely adopted. However, the black·figured decoration will exceptionally continue to be used on the panatbenac amphoras,lhe "ctficlelveeesv.a tradiucn that will prevail even in the hellenistlc period. The decoration themes are strictly defined and their arrangemenl on the vase becomes typical. The goddess Athena, in a warrior's pose. is depicted on the front side, while on the back is represented the athletic game in which the athlet has won. While, however, the rendering of the goddess is dry and stylized that of the athlete is free and natural and expresseslhelrendsothiscontemporaryart. In the evolution 01 iconography can be observed that in'Ihe early worxs (61h c. BC) Athena is represented in a warrior's pose, turning to the left. while later, atthe end of the 6th century, she IS flanked by two doric columns. The Sth century amphoras have been decorated by great artists of the red-figured style, who can be distinguished by their personal slyle in design. The 4th century lntroduces a number of innovations. rnost tmportant 01 which, Ihe inscription of the name 01 the so-called "Eponymos Archon", on the front face of Ihe vase. Ihatserves anindlsputable chronological evidence. Along with the name of the archon also appear his symbols and attributes. In 360150 BCthe figure 01 the goddess turns to Ihe right. At the end of the century the annuoe towards athletics and their content is changed the result 01 the game counts more than the competition itself -and consequently the representation of the athletic games is altered: the Ideal athleteimage is gone. the old grace and vigour are lost. During the benenisuc and roman period the overall appearance of panathenaic amphoras degenerates reflecting the decay of the time they belong to.

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M_L FINLEY. H.W. PLEKET. The Olympoc Games. The firSI Thousand Years, London 1976 H 'IOTOpIO' TWV 'OAujJmoKwv (IUAAOYLKO fpyo), 'EK~oTLKr'( 1976 'Ayli/vwv. 'A6l)vwv

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Pierre de Courbetin or the Revival of the Olympic Games
On Ihe name and 01 Christianism sanctuaries From and the the byzantine at ancient all the emperors temples activities spirit t9thcentury, tion seeks and while French models, in 1883 of cavations. ordered regarded the destruction as vehicles

banned 18th

of the ancient to the early clvllisaex-

and culture. a return Thus. under ideologist. then

however,

the european the begin

back to the ancientorigms in 1874 German in Olympia. a young 01 lhe 01 to replace

E. Curtius. Pierre athletics Games becomes for

de Courbetin. conscious the

importance youtha.Bince vive The first

upbring," himself takes

he commits Olympiade thanks

the Olympic m and

International 1896 ot Courbetm. Games

in Athens efforts altitude quity piade while cord

to the 01 people

persistent towards in eou-

However. IS different

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eooreceton

the OlympIC

the glory 01 vrctcryot accompanied today it lasts

a winner

inanOlym· a 're-

him lor the rest 01 his ne. as long as he owes

so

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5. 65A61 (1966), 1(19.1 '0. SAKHUIZEN,Chalkis - in - Euboea (1976), 43 K.t~. - J. HEALY, Mining and Metallurgy in the Greek and Roman World (london 1976),57-8,62. 6. A. SNODGRASS, The Darl< Age of ereece (1971),231 K.tJ:;. ·JANE WALDBAUM, From Bronze to Iron, SIMA L1V (GOleborg 1978), 62 K.t~ 7. COLDSTREAM, Greek Goom, Pottery (1968) 354.-n.9EMEAH, ·EpnpIKo.,AE 1969,156ell<. 6.. n. ElEMEAH. nAE 1979.48 K.t~, etcs. - L KAHIL, -Ccmrlbutlon 1I1't!llude de I' 'ErMrle gt!lomt!l· Irique», ~lI'tA'1 ("Aef)vo 1980), 525 d~ 8. OII<One(io xcccunerccu: A. ANaPEIOMENOY. All. 29 (1973-74), 406 K.tl;. - OIKOn. POUOoou: L KAHIL, AnI.K. 24(1981),815 d~ 9.-EpyoYI981.27eIK.52-53. '0. Lelkandi I (1980),368-9. 11. W. SCHADEWALO, 'An6 TOy KOO\.\o Kal TO -Epyo TOU ·OJ.!f)pou, A' (j.!uo.<pp. 41. KOl<pl(if). 'Aef)~o 1980).136 K.t~. EIYal a~IOOfU.lE(WTOOTI 0 ovyypaOiltae; ftlOY fyoe; tpeuYTJlt<:; T1je;Xa.'.I«OO~TO 1941 (6~.0f11l.4).-L.JEFFERY, ArchaicGraace (London 1976), 63 I<.t~, 12. J, 8OAROMAN, The Greeks Overseas 2 (London 1980), 40 K,t!;. 162 K_tl;.no lOY tpnplOKa anOIKIOj.lO Tfie; KtpKupae;: '0 S. BAKHUIZEN, Chalkis - in - Euboea (1976),22 K.t~. (jt~ Tav (itXElOI. 'AVTleETO: rt. KAAAlrAI, KtpKupa, 'ArtmKIOIl6e; Ka(-Enoe; (lunwvnol), 13. rt6. roec 'rrrnceerec Kal TOUe; 'Innele;: 'Apl' crcrexcoc, nO"Il_1321o-L.JEFFERY,Archaic Greece(1976),67K.t~ 14. 'Ano ll't BtOl) SQATO<; (Mol<puxwpacpo) npotpXETal Tlliilla m't~IYOU el&.l~lou QAOyou, Ol'tllepo 1Jlf) 0\I~0yJ't lrie; 'A).lep, IxoMIe;, ap. AST.42(BSA61(1966)60o.p,44).napQjlola6pt6IlKoyOTI')vn6AT'[lftc;Xa.'.KI(iae;:At:.27(1972) Mek.nlv.57. 'AnO ll't 6tOl1 N. AalltilaKo<; tlyyelo (jIO<pOpwV (;) lOIPW~ TOO Sou COLDSTREAM, Goom. Greek Pottery, (1968)152. - A. ANaPEIOMENOY, At:. 27(1972). MeA, 182·3, nlv.66 IS. L, JEFFERY, Archaic Greece {1976),64 K.tl;.

.s.

cno rcoc

25. n. KAMlrA. «TonoypalPll<O rtj<; nOAIle; lfie; apXo[o~ KtpKUpae;·, npaKlIKO a' naVIOY!oU Iuvceprou A' (KtPKUpa 1980),87 26. r. SEATEP, Xa.'.I«e; (1955), 61. - a. TPIANTA4lYMOnOY'-'OY, AEM 16(1979), 198. - J. KODER, Negroponte (1973), 69 K.t~. - 'H npWlllll OXUPWOl1 8Ewpdlal ·IOUIJlIYIo.yelo: AAA VI (1973),68.rlolo.AlllevI1<6tpyaToOAIIIOYIOuTrie; 'AY8'1M~ac::: H. SCHLAGER· D. 0: BLACKMANJ. SCHAFER, -ner Haten ~on Anthedon», Arch. Anz. 1968, 21 K,t~. {TO IIJlopI1<6 [(iloIT, OE~. 89 K.tl;.). 27. TO. apXaiK6 KIO~OKpayO: AAA VI!(1974),35 K,t~. IUllnAIlPW(JalIKf) 816~loypa(jllo: TPIANTA· 4lYAOnOYflOY, AEM 19(1974),251 01111.141.- N. nAflAaAKH, .T6 IIEOalWYIKO TEiXo<; Tf)e; Xa.'.K[· oo.e;-,AEM 20 (1975),277 K.t!; 28. OSTROGORSKY, Histofy (1956),66 K.t!;, • 'AvtIBElO: H, AHRWEILER. Byzence et Ie mer (Paris, 1966),19 K.t!;. (IOlall.oe~.21, 0111-1.1). 29. K. T!AKOY, «IuI-l80~T't OTI')y na.'.oloXSllOllOV'KT't Kal npWIllll 6u~avtlYl') IlYTJlleloypa<plo n'le; Io.l-Iou·, AE 1979, 'APX, XpoYIKa.16 K.t~.

The ancient

town

of Chalkls

cr. n.x

Part II
The first urban center. the first town was ereated around 800 B.C" when the inhabitants of the small scattered villeges gathered together and founded the first organized settlement unlt. This new town of the late geome)ric periad was located in the cove of Hagios Stefanos bay, which became the harbor of the town and the center of its trade and navlqalional enterprises. Metal work and pottery started developing and at the same time an intense colonization movement towards the North (Macedonia, Thrace) and the West (Ita!y, Sicily) is observed. Chalkis up to 600 A.D" that is, for fourteen centuries, flourished and declined at the same location, around Hagios Stefanos bay, The effort the Department of Antiquities of Euboea is undertaking at the moment is to detennine the successive phases 01 the town planning development and organization of the ancient Chalkis. The decade 610·620 A.D., when the ancient town is abandoned and transferred to a neighbouring location on the hill dominating the Euripos strait, is considered to be a cruoer historic terminus for the town. The new, small town/lortress, the "Castle", is fortified and thus a suitable harbor for the royal ships is secured. 1\ is suggested thelthe transfer and the fortification of coastal towns like Chalkis, Monemvasia, Corfu, etc" belonged to a broader defense plan of the Byzantine Empire, which must most probably be acknowledged to the emperor Herakleios (610641 A.D.). This plan aimed to the control of the sea, a goal to be achieved through the reorganization of the royal navy and the reo sistance against the Abars and Slavs. This latter was succeeded by founding fortified harbors, appropriate for the safety of the inhabitants and the mooring and replenishment of the ueet. The choice of the new position proved to be successful and the new fortified town of charkis became in the Midd)e·Ages known throughout the east Mediterranean Sea as the "Castle of Euripus". ')7

16. I. SAPTIOY, 'A8'1voiKal KAIlPouXIOI ('ABi'!YOI 1972), 31 K,t~. E, Bpo~6nou~ou, 'EMIlVIO"lIKfi Xa.'.Kle; CABrivo(1972) 17. Elltl"loYPoOilla: a. TPIANTACIIYMOnOYAOY, AEMI6(1970),186K.t1;. "IOwe;Um'(p~EOiIo.OI1avaKaIYIOTJ<;IJl0.610-620II,X .. KaIOXIIJlOY80 ol.II.X. Onwe; ayacptpEI 0 J. KODER, Negroponte (Wien 1973).93. - np6~. a. TPtANTACIIYMOnOYAOY, AEM 19 (1974),254. 18. 'AvaoKaq>t<:;: IAMIlJON, IUj.l60"T't (1976),53 (ap.92),55 (o.p.l1g). - 'ApX1lel<lOvII<0. IltAIl: A. ANl!.PEIOMENOY At:. 27(1972) Me", 173,ap 3,nly,6Oy 19. TPIANTA<IlYMOnOYflOY, AEM 16(1970), 184 I<_t!;_ - ANl!.PEIOMENOY, At!. 27{1972} MeA.170 K.t~. IAMIlJON, IUll60M (1976),30-1 2O.TPIANTACIIYMonoy,-,oy, AEM 16(1970), 19i. 21. G. OSTROGORSKY, History 01 the Byzantine Stete (trens. J. Hussey, Oxford 1956), 84 K.t~.-D ZAKYTHINOS, La Grande XOPIOTl')PIOv Ek; A. 'Op~o.~(iOY r" ('A8!'1yal 1966).300 K,t!;. CYRIL MANGO. Byzantium (London 1980),60 d!;. 2:1. N, HAMMONO, Migretions and'lnvasions in Greece and adjacent areas (N. Jersey 1976), 63 I<.t!;. rtoTI'(yOnoljlT] Ollol Il&TaKlvf)aet<; dxav lOy XOpaKTi)pO ayPOllKOU tnolKla,.tOU 6~. a

arecre.

Irll..lElWaEt<; 1. IlOIXda Yla lk; npW'll~ tMT'[YIKt<:; nOAEt<;. J. COLOSTREAM, Gaamelric Greece (london 1977), 303 K.t~ .• G. HUXLEY, ~AriSlOtIe on the origin of thePolIs~, Ill'tAnCA6T'tyo 1980),258 dl;. 'Iowo;; CYOj.!Y'101ll00 yeyo~6lO<; elver 6 .000yo'1<10\.\6c; lWY KouP'1lWY. noua~o<ptpe, 6 h:n:op,oyp6cpo<; 'APXtIlOXo<; 0 Eu60eue; = Ilpa6w~, rEWYPOIPIKa C,465-r,SEATEP,XokKIe;(1955),'25. ~. J. COLDSTREAM, Greek eecmetnc Pottery (Oxford 1968), 169 K.t~., 354·5. 367 lI.t~ .• A. SNODGRASS, The Dark Age 01 Greece (Edlnburgh 1971),71·2. 3, nop0(itIYIlOTO lmO Iupla-na.'.aIIJlIYIl: P. RI(S, SOkAs t (Kobenha~n 1970), 142 K.t~. 'AnO Kunpo, H. CATLlNG, Report of the Department 01 Anliqutles (Nicosia 1973), 179 K.t~. - re~IKo.: Lei· kal'ldlt (1960),3OOK.t!;.·01l010TT)Ue; KepaIlEIKftc; Xa.'.I«60e; 1<01Al Mina: M. POPHAM, Al Mina and Euboea, BSA 75/1980), 151 K.t~. 4, II, ElEMEflH, reWIlElplKa Xa.'.Klooe;, AM I( (1969), 27-8. 'A~IOOlllJerWTT)T't u(iplaloO lt~oue; TOU 80u 01. n.x. (elK. 6-7) COLDSTREAM, oecm. Greece (1977), 192 elK. 61b. - 'E~5Ia(jltpo~Ta yew(JuplKO Ta(jlIKO a(J(jlopta t(iwoov 1101 01

no.~o, ~TO. apxolo~OYIKo. TtKIlf)Plo n'rc; K080sou TWY 6ap6ap!llY ele; If)~ ·EM600.» 'EMllvlKa 14 (1955), 87K.t~ 23."AnoljJIlnounpwlo<;nopouoloaeOyyw0T6c; ayy~oc; apXOloMyoc; S. HOOD: (e) «An Aspect of theSlavlnvesi~nalGreecelnthe Early Byzentine Period», Sbarnlk XX (Praga 1966), 165 d~.{6) -tstee 01 refuge In the early Syzan~ne Period., BSA 64(t970),37 K.t~ 24. D. METCALF, • The Aegeen Coastlands under Threat: Some coins end coin Hoards Irom the Reign 01 Heraclius», BSA 57 (1962), 14 I<,t!;_ '0 e'1a0up6c; ~TfIe; Xa.'.I<[(ioe;, 1939. (at~, 22) (ity 6ptellKE).ItoaOTl') Xa.'.KI6a,QAAo. at ayp6 TOO XWPIOO 1lJ0xyo., 1Jl0. 60PEIO l1'(e; nO~IJ(;. IlO No1l101l0TII<0 MouoEio 'Ae'1vwY IfIU.\QOOtTOI set OeulEPo<;e'10aUP6c;,aOIlIlOO[CUTo<;aKOllll,nou cncrexetrci anOAIyaXa.'.KO VOIlIOjloTO TOO auTOKpalopa4lwKo. (602-610 Il.X.), Kallowc::; ece81lKe OTI') Xa.'.KI50. EUXOP1OTW8ep1l0.ll't lVVOIj TOO NOll. MOUotlouYlo.ll~nAnpocpoplee;,

revv6i5eloc; Bl6Alo8r,Kll: "Eva OTUlaVTlK6 rrveuuoruco KtVTPO Ti)C; 'EAAo5ac;
Iuxv6 01 'A81lvaiOt ncovoav ~I;w 6n6 11') revvczero Bl6 .... 108l'jKIl, eaull6.~ouv VELT6 onoxocto tpyo TI'")t:;.rr' OiITDV T6 hOyo T6 1964 Llipu91'")KEI'l tTOIPEio ..01 q)iAOl rttc revvczetou Bt6AI09f]K'1e;", Ilt Tie; etceopec TooVIlEAooVrnc cnctcc npcvucrcncretrcr Iltpoe; vtwv ayopWv 616Alwv, won Ii revveeercc v6: IlE[VEI mOTl'j moue; 01"6Xoue; rrou K096plOE 6Ilipun'je; 111e;, enoree n'jv 6 "BeAe m'JYl'l vveonc KO! lleAi:111e; YIO KoBe rt nou 6.!pop6. 'EAMlio. ITO IJtAT] Tlie; 'Ercrcetcc O1"tAVeTaI Ilia neplolilKf] tKlioOT] Ttie; revvccetcu (Griffon), KoBwe; Kaf rtoocsxncerc Yl6. TIe;liloM~ete; Kal TIe; exaecerc non 6pYOVWVOVTOl. Onoroc BtAel unocet '16. " ylvellli:Aoe; rev ,,<I>[AWV Tlie; revvccetou BI6Alo8l'jK'1e;», cuvercceccvroc tTOI 01"6 noxunuo seve rtou erurexet. an6 o.onpo rtevrexucc Il6.PIJOPO,01yoAo~wno( ToiXOI an6 vO~lcimKo KO! 01 ortcxcmec KITPlv6XPwlleq OIOKOOj.lf)cere TOU cno OKUPIov6 (elK. 2). xcocKTIlPIOTIK6 otoAllil TOO cnotou curoc elvrn 6 vcurtcc. 'H revv6lieloe; 8IBAl09TiKT] litv 6.notexer llov6xo xoopo lleMTI1e;, elver ouVOIJO Kal xoopex.; eoeuvcc. T6 uAIK6 111e;IJMOuT!~el TIe;nxncocootec t TWV eceuvnrcv. IIlIlOVTlKt'j rtcoccccc crr6. E:MT]vtK6. vocpucrrc 6.noTEAoOV KO! 01 liloM~elq rtou opYOVWVOVTOI 01"6 Xoopo aUTO. 'H oxnvoeoxrc Ttie; revvczetou ~enepva. T6. cuvooc Tne; 'EMMae;, I'auTf)v Opy6.VWOEf) 'AIlEPlKOVIKl'j IxoAf) T6 1977, T6 100 6.1Eavec Iuvtlipto BI6ALO<piAWV, 01"6 crtctc OUlllJeTeixov n6.vw 6.n6 140 coveeoor. 'AMo ec lioOj.le TI n£pltxel ainf) Ii «eoeuvrrnxnKO! on6.VIO BIBAI08I')KT]: 'a 'lwavvT]e; t'evvccroc nAOUTt~e TI') oUAAoyl') TOU Ilt IlEyoAIl nOlKtA!O 01"01xeuov. 'Evota<pep6TOV Ylo c.nennore nrcv oxeTIK6 IJt rnv 'EMMa' eror un6.pxouv: KAQo/KO{ Cluyypo({Jefr:;: -OXI ce Ilia 1J6vo tKOOOT], oM6. oe OAee;TIt:; npOOTec; tKli60elC; TOUe;. In6vlo KoAai09T]Ta BlSMa npoepx6IJevo 6.n6 T6. rue nOAla rurtovcccetc rtou 6.oxoAfJ8T]KOV IJt tAAT]VlK6. «eurevc: 'EMI1VIKI') 6.v60Aoylo - <l>Awpe'H!o 1494 - i'j6.K6j.lo T6 eve cno TO liuo cvttrunc TOO AOUKIOVOO nou TunciJ61lKOV ce nepyOIJIlV!'J 01"!'J

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58

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The Gennadius Library: An Important Cultural Center
The Gennadius Library is named after the diplomate, bibliophile loannis Gennadios (1844-1932), who 60 years ago donated his distinguished book collection to the American School of Classical Studies, on the condition that the School would hold these books in trust for the Greeks and operate a library, accessible to the international community of scholars. To house the coltectiori, the School constructedinI923-25aneo-classicalinstyle building with the aid ot the Greek Government and the Carnegie Corporation. To assist the enrichment of the collection, which originally numbered 26_000 volumes and now comprises over 70.000, the association "The Friends of the Gennadius Library" was instituted in 1964. The Gennadius Library, which is also a research Institute,offerstoscholarship,through its rare book collection, a wide range of items and topics referring to Greece: classic authors in first editions; editions of works of Ihe Church Fathers: travellers' descriptions: a rich collection of archaeological editions of the 18th-20th cent.: byzantine texts: an impressive number of volumes on the Greek Revolution (1821-1829) and the Turkish history (1470-1500); a unique collection of information (archives, works of art) on the philhellene Lord Byron: modern Greek litterature However, the most important possession the Library holds, is its archives, like that 01 Ali Pasha, of the archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann and of Ihe music conductor Dimilris Milropoulos. Moreover, the Nobel Prize-winning poet Odysseus Ely tis has recently donated his papers to the Library in appreciation for its distinguished contribution to the study ct the Greek culture The Gennadius Library is not only archives. books. catalogues and stacks, but also an alive and active educational nucleus: the series of lectures and exhibitions held there verify this additional cultural character 59

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61

rev tpYOUTf1P[OlV, t~OKOAOuBT}OE Koi IJETa -mv KOT6AT}I¥T} TWV 'ABT}vwV one TOUe; TOUpKOUe; (1456), ' AJ..:A6. O[ TOUe; K tnOIJEVOUe; OlWVEe;, nopa Tt;V cvcrrru~T} Tne; rtoxnc KO[ T1'JV tYKOTOerrOOT} VEWV KOTOtKOlV, T6. 0YYEIOnAOerrElo zocxeucv IJEOO crcuc nOAIOUe; O[KIOIJOUe;KoB~ KOt errt;V nUKVOKOTOIKf1IJEVT}, 6.n6 T6v 180 01., cuvouctc Tf)e; nMKOe;, tvw 01 M'\Ee; BIOTExviEe; ~TOV tYKoTOerrT}lJtvEe; 1J0KPIa crto TO KEVTPO, cmcc KOt TO tPYOOTi]PIO KEPOIJI151wv (I. 'rpcuxca. o.tt., 0, 218, 220). AUTf) ElVOI l'l ohio TWV errerotcv «eocIJEIKWV nov 6ploKOVTOl crtq cvccecq:lEe; crouc xwpoue; curouc Tf)c; 'ABf)vee. To neorocorecc npoEPxoVTOI 6.n6 T6. '\Ey6IJEVO "KEPOlJll5opla», nou 15T}lJlouPyoOvTOt ncvrc yupOl 6.n6 rc tpYOOT!iPlO 6n6""[0 6XPT}erro KEPO!lEIKa, rc IJIOOI¥T}IJEVO, rc 6.no""[uXT}IJEVO, rc nE""[O!lEVO ot ~Eponi]yoZio, OE MKKOUe;, ce ecaocuc. Alh6 ""[6 cvcxcncIJO, rrrf ZiIOZipOIJt; rev ctovov. KaVEI n'l Xpovo,\6YllOTl nilv KEpalJEIKWV l5uOKO'\f1. T6 ncccrncet «ct 6 F. Waage8 Yla ""[a KEPOIJEIK6. EUPl'lIJOTO oro xwpo Tlie; 6.pxoioe; ·Ayopae;. Tf] 1J6vT} xoovo'\0YIKt; TonoBtTT}OT} Tt; I5[VEl ue mv ovoucctc turkish pottery (TOUpKIKO «ePOlJtIKa). Tf)v 'i1510 cvoucotc l5ivtl KO[ ti AI. Frantz". rtooxcoet OIJ~ OUyKEVTpWVOVTOe; 6Pl0IJEVO KtPOIJEIKa IJE tuacvomrc XpovoMYT}otie; TOUe; ere TEAOe; TOO 160u i'l TIe; OPXEe; TOO 170u Ka( TO urtcxomc crcv 180 ol., IJE OIJq1l60AiEe; ncvrc. MtyaAT} ccccerc Kol ~,\AEII.jJT} 0'10OKOq:lLKWVerrOlXE!Olv ~I5Oloov 01 0'10O~~~~~).~~Eya~~~K~~~
~~~~~~ Kfle; nAEupde; r,TOV tYKOTOOTllIJEVO aYYELOnAOOTLKa tpYOOTI')PIO 6u~oVTl-

8-9. S0810 OTpoyyuAI'( nloTtAo lit MO(,lnuA"e; nAEuptc;.IT6vtnlnt60nu8I1tvOTIlC;,XopoXTI'( nOpOOTOO'l Mop0810U lit 'f0UOMwlltvonoVlo Mol KOTOPTI lit ov8cIIIIITI'( M(lToAI1~I1. 'Ano TO oXi'iIlO TO" MCPOlltIMOii, TIe; 1i100MOOII'lTlMte; TOlvLE~ MAn. nptnEI Eivol oilyXpovo IItTa npolJyoil(.IEVO. SU~OVTIVO MOUOEio 'A8IJvwv, apl8. T.1823. npWTIJ li'lIiOolcuol1, 41•.6. ITouponouAou, 1I.n. o. 8).

va

vc cot uerceuzcvnvc. T6 cuvoxo TWV KEPOlJtLKWV nou 6ptB'lKOV I5L6onopTO OTf! yfj Koi 000 ntpLEIXE eve KOf,JlvL veucro IJt ovvetc 6eOlpI')B'lKOV, T6TE !lOVO, We; euzcvnvc Ii «Ko""[6 T6v uecckcvc KO[ Opy6TEPOV» o,\M 15T}1l0attUTf1KOV We; 6u~avTlv6. "000 on6 aUTO I5Loow8T}Kav 6p[OKOVTOI recc ere auzcvnvc MOUOtlO 'ABT}VWV (0'1nrtoocerteunxc OUTWV t[KOV(~OVTat tl5w) Koi errr'j Iu'\'\oyf) TOO 'ApXOlO'\OYLKOO Inoul5aOTllP[OU ""[00 Floverucmptcu 'AB'lVWV MET06u~oVTlva KEPOf,JELKa tXOUV 6PEBEI Koi cttc OVOOKO<pte; Tr;e; nMKOe;. Mevcuv Of,JWe; ol51lIJOOiEUTO, Onwc; «ct TO ecorurcrc on6 rnv nOALa ovaoKo<pr'j OTa 'lOTIO Tlie; 'AKpOnOA'le; IUIl<PWVO IlE rtc (mSovte;) XPOVOAOvtec nie; AI. Frantz3, evcc crro TOUe; pUSIlOUe; TWV KEPOIlEIKWV, at 6P101Jt'10 6.ST}VO"iKa epvccrnom nie; apxoloe; 'Avoocc, ""[00 Tt'\OUe; ""[00 160u f'l rev apXwv 1:00 170u ol. fi""[ov rc blue and white on~ T6. 6VOlJa~&L. rtoerter '16 elVOl ('molJilJ'lOTl rev ITa'\LKwv lloyt6AI11. MOO1'panae; )lwple; AOIIIO, )lciAoe; KoL "06fl. ITO tllnpOe; IItpoe; Tiie; MOIAIO~, TO XOPOXTa O1'poyyuAo nAololo Eivol 1I1111J0'l onoiToAIKO ME' paIiEIKO. Mtoo 01'0 nAololO, II cmElpOEIIiIl~ )10' paXTI'( IIET08UZ;ovTlvl'( YPOIIIII'( ot no"AonAO"e; OTlxoue;.IIIIIEiTOI",OAIIiwTOIiIOKoaIiO. TtAoe;TOii 170uI'Iapxte;180uor. Su(oVTlvoMouocio'A81lvWv,opI8. T.1849.

KWV TOO 150u Koi 160u ct. - eve el60e; I¥EUTOIJOy\6AtKWV. 'H ¢lPOYKO«octrc ETXt Af]E,EI Yla Tf)V 'ABf!vo T6 1459 (..IETf)V tYKO""[aerrOOT} TG.w "roupKWV. -H llOAIKf] KEPO!lE!Kr'j oIJWe; <palVETOLnwe; t~OKOAOUSOOOe: '16 eunveer TOUe; I(EpOlJterrte; «ct KOTO TOUe; ertoIJEVOU<; ctcvec. 01(1..\'\01 Mo oueuot rtou 6KO'\ouSoD· 00'1 TO tpYOOTf]ptO Tfje; 'A9r;vot; nrcv 01 rtccoeocncxot, IJt Tr'j XOPOXTr'j Kol ~wypo<pLerrr'j 1510K601JT}0T} OT6 l5uo XPWIJOTa, ""[6 rtocowo Koi T6 xccrcvoKi""[PLVO(f) oK.oDP<? WXPLVO). T6 KEpOIJELKQ nee necrvpccovrcr KO[ ElKovi~oVTQI t6w OTIe; elK. 1-13 tKTIeevrcr ere BU~OVTlV6 Mouoeto. 'AVTLrrcoccrteucuv OUTOUe; TOUe; Mo eve1J0ue;. nptnEI '16 Xpovo'\OYOOvTOI yuper 6.n6 T6 Tt'\Oe; ""[00 170u «or uecc orcv 180 ct. T6 enouevc Ke:POIJELKO, euc. 14-21, rrooeoxovrcr 6n6 0lK6nE60 nie; n,\6.KOe; (6156e; 'AI5PLOVOU «ct 'Yrtecerzou. 6.vooKa<pr'j 1975 r" 'Etpope:ia<; KAOOL-

10. 111iill0 O1'poyyuAi'i~ mOTUo~ lit KOIln1JAc~ nA&upt~. 'H ~WYPOCPIIU'l Ie: 1i101l001l1J0!'Jlit Til H XpllolJToii YO"O(IOU XPWIIOTCX;Kol TIIIIOPcpll T~e; (fIu..\...I.woloe; TOU IItYTpOU Tllv npoxwpEi IItoo O1'OV18001,Bu(oVTlVO MOUOCIO'AII!'Jvwv, apl&. 1.2201.

12-13. 'Evcnlypo'fo KEPOIIEIKO T(.Il'(lIoTO 6no KAclOTO oyycio. MtTI'( 1I"'POYPOIlIIOTI1 XOPO)lTI'( ypo'fl'lftTovVPolllltvoAoiKOO1'IXOKIOnouTa VO'lIiOTOUe;oxul(nOllltTl'(vnopOOTOOI1,ITo T.2204y lowe; oVToAAaooovTol lIwpo. bo T.2204a6T"nCX;Tiie;xopo)(Tijc;nopOO1'OOIJe;TO" tIIOploii lit TO O1'poyyuAElltvo obJllO Moffa tvTOvoaYKa910cIMOvf(uOIOU)lVOOTOIICpaIlCIKOTiie; "ApTOC; TOU TUOUe; TaU 170u Mof 01'0 1"00 TOU 180u or. BU~OVTtVO MOUOEio 'AlIl1vwv, 1.22040, T.2204y.

T2204y 62

14·15. M&y6"0 nl6TO.II& 1510~6ol.HIO~ on6 K&PO· IIEIK6 tpYOOTl'lPI Toil Toov6K·KoU TIi~ n&pI6· l50u 1150·1850. Bpt91l~E ot 6n09hll Tlie; 6150u 'Yn&p&Il5ouTlie;n"6KOe;KOlxpoyoAoYEiKOIT6 un6"OInOK&POIIEIK6Tou6n09tTfI.r"E<pop&io ·A8f1vwv.6pI8. A.1118.dn6T6v6n09hfl.

16-11. TlllillO GTpoyyu"lie; mOTUOe; liE KOllnii· "Ee;n"&Upte;, TOlvlwT6npl'lolva I(ti"ae;Kalnpa· OIVOKITPIVO KOI""O. "H ~wypoqllKfl 1510KOt::rllflO~ TaU lit TO 6V90150l(&lO KOrT6 l5uo YUPTO gv91'1 dvoI9Ellono"uOyonI'l16TOvI80oI.GTre;~u"o· y"umEe; Koot"Ee;, GTfl IIOPIIOPOY"U'P1o, GTflv KEVTI'ITIKfl, GTI'Il;WypotplKfl Tlilv ToIl(wv. r' ·Etpo· PElo·A9.,vwv.OPIB.A.1117, on6TOvon08tTll.

18. MIKpO mOTO. ·EIIEIV&IIIOOTE"ElwlltvO.l(wpie; TOTE"IK6yua"wlloKOIT6li&unpoljlflolllo,IdaTE v6 (mol508ouv T6 XpWj.lOTO. '0 TUnOe; oUT6e; 1lie; 1510K601l1'lOI'le;OUVI'IBI~OTOV ot mOTO K08f1I1EPI' vlie;xpflolle;Koiota""atUol5'K6tpyoGTflplo 6n610v 180 01. ioN; Kol TOV 200 01. r' 'Etpoptlo A8I'1vliIv,apIB. A 1186, 6n6T6vano8tTIl.

63

In"&'Wacl(; I.GIUS. LIVERANI, La eeremca GralfltB in Emiliana Romagna, Modena 1971, 0. 22. 2. CH.1oI" MORGAN, The Byzantine Pottery, Corinth XI.I942.T.S. MACKAG, _More Byzanllne and Fra", kishpollerv lrom CorInlh_, Hesperia 36 (1967). a. 249. 3. FA. O. WAAGE, .The Roman and ByzanUne Poltery", Hesperia 2 (1933), a. 316 AL. FRANTZ, .Turklsh pottery Irom jhe Agora~, HesperIa II (1942),0.1 4. CH. BAKIRTZIS, .Oldymotelchon, un centre de ceramlque post-byzantine-, OyCn. Balkan Studies 21 [e&00aAovIK'11980). 5. Arr, XAPITONI60Y. KEpDl'LKI'j OTI'lV "ApIO tnl TOUPKOKPOlioc:;, (YLa limwllo), Kol .C6ramlque grecqueduXV1l!'slec"'danslaYilled'Arta~,F8In. za Hi (1980). 6. r .K. rOYPrtOTHI •• M&lo6u~ovnya Sgratf~I_. Zuy6<; 19 (1976). e. 52. '0 Uiloc:;, ~npWlllo Il&lo6u~ovTLva K&poll&LKa~. 'ApX<lIoAoylo I (1981). c. 74. 7. Arr. t.EhHBOPPIAI, _ITa XVOPIO ll'Ic; nccc6oo1OKtlC; Ktp!lIlELKI'I,,·, 21 (1976), a. 18. 6. rl6 TOil" 6U~oVllvoil" ctoo ..oilc:; 6A. I. TPAYhOY. noA&olloIlLK!'i t~t""~'1TWY 'A8'lvwv, 'Ael'lvo 1960,0.151,154. rloTatpYOOTI'lPLo KalTO KEpol'&LKOOT!'ivapxola 'Ayopa: FR. 0, WAAGE, 0.. 306. A. FRANTZ, .Mlddle 8yzanUne ponery In Athens-, HesperlaVU, 2 (1938), a. 429 B, YOUNG. An InduslliaJ Dlsllict 01 Ancient Athens, 0.286,Onouavo!ptpuoIKOlllvLlOu90ul'll00u ,I. r.6 TO tpyOem')PLO em') PWtJoiKI'l 'Ayop6: 41. t.. ITAYPQnOYI\OY, _'AvoaKoq>ol PWlloIKr.c:: 'Ayopdc:;», M 13(1930-31). nopopl_O. 1-14. AN. OPMN~OY .• -EKetOI" nep( IWV avooKolp6)v 8L6"'LoeI'jK'lc::'A!lPLovoO KoIPwlloTKI'lc:;'AyopOc:;. AE'lI.(1964). 'APX.Xpoy. 0.6.

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19. rOS09o Ka ......i.fI .. t on¥o, Ko ..mOllt¥O y.:opo. "0.1.11.11 tnllflo¥EIO towuPIKOIiOI t~wl£pllla, 6.0110all .....tv'1 lit 90llml KITPIVWlTO KpW.. O III a'OKTEC; nIH"Altc; npilalvEC; eer KOIJlOVltC;. 'H IIlall6alllla'1 ailll'l ciyo, 1110napoA.l.oyl'j ,ij" 9u(0W'Tlvij" lIaPIiOPOIlOP'P'1C; (mBrbled) lIollijC; a·""'tlc; 1I10IlOGII...a'1C; ano 'OY 130 01. Ellt n.i.aTl6 6,6COO ... 1101 tnt~aE lit IIIWIKITlKt" nopoAAoytc; ciIc; lOY 190 01. at noAAo tpYOIJlI'jPlo. r' 'ElpOptio'A9'1VWV,apl9.A 7n9,anOtovan08tt ....

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OTT')Vii, emOtop9wIJeva Ka9we; Kol VE:po tVIOX,UlJtvO, f,e:pom'lYaOa, 1-16.~E:e; n'1AOO, OlaxwpiOTIKO[ tpmoO[aKol VI6. rc "OTI6aVlla" rev KE:POJ.lEIKWV OT6 KOlllvl, KOIJI-I6.tla 6n6 cnccuevc 6uzcvnvc Kol uerceuzcvnvc Ooxe:io, J.I£PIKO urcozouxeuevc. m'!AIVO TOlj.JnOUKIO KAn. T6. Ke:POj.J£IKC nou E:iKOV[zovrcr tOw 6pe9nKav at ..6.n09tT'1". 0'1Aa6T') at eve j.JIKp6 KUKAIK6 «rtouc. toux; tVKaTOAE:llJl-ltvo me Kal-l{VI, We; O:xpnOTO, crtorumuevc OT6 1jJT')0l1-i0 KAn. xoovoxovouvrcr vupw OT6. 17501850,

Ponery as an art expression has not only survived after the fall of the byzantine empire and the turkish rule but it has also achieved a rich and impressive quantity and quality production. Post-byzantine ponars have adapted the traditional byzantine techniques in making and decorating their products. Two main types of decoration are employed, the painted and the incised one (sgraffito), while the colours prevailing are the green and the ocher (or yellow-brown). The decorated area is glazed with a colourless varnish, The ceramics, even when coming from the most remote greek workshops, display common characteristics in form and decoration, since they closely follow the .traditio.n thro,!ghout the post-byzantine centunes. This tradition is so strong that the foreign influences from East and West have affected only few workshops. The examples illustrated here representathenian workshops of two periods: around 16501750 (fig. 1-13) and 1750·1850 (fig, 14-21),

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Mosaics
Dnterent man cialise types in their

part II
appear lime see at the the Rospe-

of mosaic the same

periodat

lhe artists

art. So we can paints from

ector

imaginarius on cartoons, fersthe face (lor some work, their Amiteius naris, eounoes natural tesserae. materials and ceramic AI the end widely used. rius(lor which uccrs) names some works

who

the diflerenl parielarius, the cartoon the We have

subjects who transon the surtesse/arius give here their but

the piclor isto with

painting walls

be decorated and ceilings)or tesseree. who other the

by the musiva-

of artists are Greeks are

signed

are Romans Anthos,

world-spread: Antaios, Blas108,

Amitaion. Apolti· pros.

Quintus, Asklipiadis, and others used cut

cecnarws.

The materials rocks were

lor mosaics 10 cubic tesserae. lime,

are: pebbles. enamel binding marble cement is As

tesserae. pumice,

gold-glass used: 19th dust 01 the

(sometimes

egg is added)

c. portland

73

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n

1. UNESCO, "Courses lor the Iraillin9 01 specialists ill the c-esewetcn alld restoration 01 historic monumellts. ill Rome". Museum Vol. 20 a. 148. 1967. 2. S. KECK, "Training tor Engineers", Racent AOvances in ConservatiQn IRome.l!.ldA<:~Il) a. 199-201 3. G. THOMSON. "Conservation in the museums of the UK", Museum Vol. 23a. 134-139. 1970-71 4. N.S. BROMMELLE. "Preface". London centerence cn Museum Climatology. Butterworths. 1967. 5. B. HUTTON. Open lecture on "Conservation of library materials". 1980. 6. G. THOMSON, "Planning the preservation 01 our cultural heritage". Museum Vol. 54 a. 15-25. 1973 7. Museum Vol. 26a. 202-220. 1974 8. J. LODEWIJKS, "The inlluence of light on museum objects", Recent Advances In Conservation (IIC Rome Conference). 1963. 9. AC. STERN. H.C. WOHLERS. R.W. BOUBEL and W.P. LOWRY. Foundamentals of air pollution. Academic Press, 1973 10. G. THOMSON, "The Museum Environment. The Butterworth Series on Conservation in the Arts. Archaealogy and Arcl"lrtacture. 1978 11. T. PADFIELD, "The control 01 relative humidity and air pollution In shaw cases and picture frames". SIC Vol. II a. 6-29. 1966. 12. G. ALEXlOU, "Envlronrnental conditions in Museums and an Galleries: Special Reierencetothe City of Athens", MSc Thesis. University of Stralh· clyde. 1982 13. Ka8. e. IKQYhIKI.6HI, E.M.n. npoawn,~1'\ M'lPoo:popia.

Museum
The conservation toration quite basic (in and new factors environmental comprised

climatology
of works of art include The control in Museums has not yel olconserbation. of works are three: Resof the is a been The of art 1)

Preservation. conditions science which

in the history and

of deterioration galleries)

museums

strong light and UV radiations; 3) humidity. The situation moment. tion in Greece but we hope 0'

2) air pollution: 'or the in the and

is not brilliant. to see some their role

ameliora-

as countries

reconsider historic

preservation works of art.

monuments

78

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